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  • Kevin Dallet

Pepper Spray and Tear Gas?

Updated: Apr 19, 2023

Insight Into The Development of Our Most Effective Pepper Spray


by Kevin Dallet


Forty years ago, Aerko International began to develop a new line of self-defense sprays for Law Enforcement. During the development and testing of the product, it became apparent that the unique formulation was the innovative next step in aerosol defense and pepper spray evolution.


The most important aspects of developing the product were its physical effects on the intended target and its range. Our pepper spray line (Punch) is a non-flammable irritant that is made with OC Pepper, non-toxic solvents, and UV dye. We decided to take our pepper spray to a new level to better assist the Law Enforcement Agencies we have supported since 1973. We challenged our R&D to find a way to blend pepper spray with tear gas. Choosing the correct type of tear gas was step one.




Testing Begins


Two different tear gasses were tested, CN (chloracetophenone) and CS (orthochlorobenzalmalonitrile). CN is classified as a lachrymator, attacking tear ducts causing eyes to water and have a burning sensation upon direct contact to the eyes. CS is classified as an irritant because in addition to causing the tearing and severe burning of the eyes, nerve endings in the nose, mouth, and respiratory system were stimulated. This caused mucous membranes to secrete freely, and the feeling of restricted breathing to occur. In addition to these drastic effects confirmed during our tear gas testing and research trials, military tests conducted in the United States and Great Britain concluded that the amount of CS required to reach an incapacitating level was significantly less for CS than for CN. CS was chosen as the tear gas to formulate a new product with pepper spray.


A Breakthrough Development

The new formula and product were developed to shoot a coherent amiable stream instead of a misty spray pattern seen with most aerosols. This required R&D to develop a formula in which all active ingredients were miscible and formed a homogeneous solution and Freeze + P, now our most popular and effective pepper spray, was introduced. The stream pattern provides the user more control and increases the chance of a direct hit to the face. With our tight stream spray pattern, a moving target or the effects of the wind direction are less of a factor and the risk of blowback is reduced. The distance the spray can travel varies depending on the size of the unit, but it is anywhere from 12-25 feet. Though the product is most effective with a direct hit to the eyes for the pepper spray (OC) effects to occur, if the target is hit in the face, neck, or shoulders, the added tear gas will cause all the sensations discovered in our testing to take effect.


Freeze + P is then became available in Fog and High Volume Burst spray patterns and can sizes fill weights varying from 1/2oz-16oz. Click below to learn more about Freeze + P.



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